KEY TERMS, REFERENCES AND ABBREVIATIONS
ARSMS (Automated Radiation Situation Monitoring System) – a system of technical facilities designed for providing permanent automated radiological and meteorological monitoring at the industrial site, buffer zone and supervised area, under all NPP operating modes (normal operation, design-basis and beyond design-basis accidents, and decommissioning activities).
Nuclear power industry – a branch of power engineering that uses nuclear energy for electricity and heat generation.
VVER - 1000 – a water-water energetic reactor with water as heat carrier and decelerator. The installed electric capacity of power units is 1,000 MW. They have 3,000 MW thermal capacity.
VVER - 440 – a water-water energetic reactor with 440 MW electric capacity and 1,375 MW thermal capacity.
Radioactive release – emission of radioactive substance from process loops and ventilation systems into the atmosphere.
SF (spent fuel) – special type of radioactive nuclear fuel materials which present spent (irradiated) nuclear fuel for NPPs.
UN Global Compact – a United Nations strategic and policy initiative that brings together organisations whose operations and strategies are in line with the UN goals and principles seeking to build an environmentally-friendly and integrated global economy.
State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine – a central executive government agency accountable to the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. The agency is responsible for shaping and implementing the public policy in the area of safe use of nuclear power.
Energy efficiency – prudent use of energy resources, efficient and cost-effective use of existing fuel and energy resources at a current stage of technology development and subject to compliance with environmental regulations.
EBRD (the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development) – an international financial institution that helps countries from Central Europe to Central Asia to implement market reforms and integrate into global business relations.
Euratom (European Atomic Energy Community) – contributes to development and research of nuclear energy, creation of the common nuclear fuel market, control over nuclear facilities and the development of the peaceful uses of nuclear technologies in line with uniform safety standards.
Ionising radiation – any type of particle or electromagnetic radiation that has the potential to excite an atom or molecule through direct or indirect interactions.
Instrument for Nuclear Safety Cooperation (INSC) – a nuclear safety cooperation programme that has been implemented by the EU since 2007 instead of TACIS programme of the European Commission (1992-2006) that was in effect in Ukraine and a number of other independent states at that time.
Capacity utilisation factor – an important characteristic of the operational efficiency of NPP which presents the ratio of power unit (power plant) output for a specific time interval to the power unit output which could be reached at the installed capacity for this time interval.
Availability factor of a nuclear power unit – an indicator showing the ability of a power unit to have a nominal load. It is used as part of measures to improve the reliability of electricity production, as it demonstrates how well nuclear power plants are operated, maintained and repaired.
CCSUP (Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs) – the programme for improving safety at Ukrainian NPPs which was approved by Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dd. 7 December 2011 No. 1270. CCSUP seeks to make further improvements to safety as part of the implementation of long-term strategy for safety enhancement of Energoatom’s power units.
Compliance policy – elements of corporate culture and organisational structure, rules and procedures that are in line with internal regulations, national legislation and international requirements and ensure compliance of the Company’s employees irrespective of their job position.
Reference levels (Control limits) – 1st category radiation and hygiene levels with values established on the basis of normal radiation exposure actually reached at a particular nuclear facility or territory.
Safety culture – a set of characteristics and attitudes in organisations and individuals that establishes that nuclear plant safety issues are an overriding priority and are addressed according to their significance.
IAEA (the International Atomic Energy Agency) – an international organisation that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
National Energy and Utilities Regulatory Commission of Ukraine – an independent collective government agency responsible for government regulation, monitoring and control over business entities in the energy sector and utilities.
Full reservoir level — a designed level of water supply to a reservoir. The level limits the reservoir live storage capacity from the top.
EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) – a new modern approach adopted by European companies to environmental impact assessment. EU Member States are obliged to conduct EIA before permits are issued for any big project that may have a negative environmental footprint. EIA is used to establish the nature, intensity and extent of hazardous impact of any scheduled business activity on the environment and public health. On 18 December 2017, Ukraine adopted the Law of Ukraine On Environmental Impact Assessment, which cancelled earlier Law On Environmental Review. Before enactment of the new legislation, no business entity could carry out planned operations without an environmental review approval.
Paris Agreement – an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to enhance global response to climate change in the context of sustainability and poverty elimination efforts. The agreement took effect on 4 November 2016.
A greenhouse gas (GHG) – a gas that absorbs heat energy emitted from Earth's surface and clouds and reradiates it back to the Earth. The primary greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are water vapour (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), ozone (O3), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) and perfluorocarbons (PFC).
RAW treatment – technological processes that intend to change the characteristics and/or the physical and chemical composition of radioactive waste and produce a waste package suitable for handling, transportation, storage and/or disposal.
Stakeholder Engagement Plan (SEP) – a document that regulates stakeholder engagement activities and establishes procedures for stakeholder engagement in consultations, preliminary stakeholder lists, schedule of public consultations on the programme, contact information, mechanisms for submission and consideration of questions, comments and complaints regarding the implementation of the programme, including social and environmental aspects.
RAW management – a general term that combines all types of operations associated with processing, conditioning, transportation, storage and/or disposal of radioactive waste.
Post-Fukushima measures – actions under the Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs that have been developed subject to the results of the deep complementary safety assessment of Ukrainian NPPs (stress tests). Such stress tests were carried out at European NPPs after the accident at Fukushima NPP in order to prevent serious accidents and ensure serious accident management.
Radioactive waste (RAW) – materials and substances in which the activity of radionuclides and radioactive contamination exceeds limits established by current standards, provided that the materials and substances will not be used any longer.
Radiation safety – compliance with the radiation exposure limits prescribed by safety regulations, rules and standards for the staff, population and environment.
Sustainable use of natural resources – the use of natural resources to the extent and in a way that ensure sustainable economic development, harmonised interaction between the society and natural environment, efficient use of natural resources potential, economic mechanisms for environmentally friendly use of nature.
Carcinogenic risk assessment – public health risk assessment for impacts from air pollution. The assessment is based on non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk calculations. The risk assessment is conducted individually for every carcinogen and for several carcinogenic air pollutants.
Non-carcinogenic risk assessment - public health risk assessment for impacts from air pollution. The non-carcinogenic risk assessment is based on non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk calculations using hazard index.
Emergency Response System (ERS) – a complex of interconnected technical means and resources, organisational, technical and radiation prevention activities undertaken by an operating organisation to ensure emergency response — prevention or mitigation of radiation impact on the staff, population and the environment in case of an accident at NPP as well as in case of an emergency caused by such an accident.
NPP social infrastructure – cultural, sports and recreation facilities that are open for families of NPP employees and local residents.
Sustainable energy – energy produced and used in ways that support human development over the long term, in all its social, economic, and environmental dimensions. The definition was given at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit (1992).
Global Reporting Initiative Standards (GRI Standards) – the most widely adopted global system of economic, environmental and social reporting.
Dry spent fuel storage facility – a site or installation for dry storage of spent fuel.
Fresh nuclear fuel – new or non-irradiated fuel, including fuel produced out of fissionable material manufactured by irradiated fuel processing.
Fuel assembly – nuclear fuel, a structured group of fissionable material used to generate thermal power in a nuclear reactor through controlled nuclear reaction.
Physical protection – activity in the area of the use of nuclear power that is undertaken to ensure protection of nuclear facilities, nuclear materials, radioactive waste and other sources of ionising radiation and to strengthen the nuclear non-proliferation regime.
Civil protection – a function of the government to protect population, territories, the environment and property from accidents by preventing emergency situations, eliminating accident consequences and providing help to the victims during peacetime and also in times of crisis and conflict.
UN Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs) – future global development targets adopted by the United Nations. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) replaced the Millennium Development Goals in 2015 when MDGs expired.
Central Spent Fuel Storage Facility (CSFSF) – an interim storage facility which is to be built at the site of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone to store spent nuclear fuel from Rivne, South-Ukraine and Khmelnytska NPPs.
АА1000 – standards that help organisations build accountability and social performance measurement, procedures and criteria through quality social and ethical accounting, auditing and reporting. Unlike other standards, this approach invites organisations to integrate the stakeholder engagement into their daily activities.
DoZorro - an online platform of civil control over public tenders at ProZorro.
ENTSO-E – European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity.
EUR (European Utility Requirement) – an international group established by European organisations that brings together 18 leading European energy generating companies operating over 130 power units with light water reactors. The organisation seeks to develop technical requirements for designs of new Generation III/III+ LWR nuclear power plants to ensure further development of nuclear industry in Europe.
IFNEC (International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation) – formerly the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) began as a U.S. proposal announced by United States Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman on 6 February 2006 to form an international partnership to promote the use of nuclear power and close the nuclear fuel cycle in a way that reduces nuclear waste and the risk of nuclear proliferation.
INES (International Nuclear Event Scale) was developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to rate nuclear accidents. Since 1990, the scale has been applied to classify accidents associated with emergency radioactive emissions from nuclear power plants, then extended to enable it to be applied to all installations associated with the civil nuclear industry.
INPRO (The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles) was established in 2000 to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute to meeting the energy needs of the 21st century in a sustainable manner. This mechanism enables INPRO Member States to cooperate in the areas of common interest.
ISO 14001 – an international standard that specifies requirements for an environmental management system that an organisation can use to enhance its environmental performance.
KPIs (key performance indicators) – financial and non-financial evaluation system to navigate organisations towards achievement of strategic goals.
OHSAS 18001 – an international occupational health and safety management system standard. OHSAS 18001 helps create healthy and safe working conditions.
ProZorro – systemwide reform of public e-procurement in Ukraine.
STEM-освіта – a sequence of courses or programmes of study that prepares students for successful employment, post-secondary education or both and requires different and more technically sophisticated skills including the application of mathematics and science skills and concepts. STEM stands for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics.
1) Energy Strategy of Ukraine to 2035 “Safety, Energy Efficiency and Competitiveness” was approved by Order of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dd. 18 August 2017 No. 605-r.
2) Sovereign-guaranteed Loan Agreement between EBRD and Energoatom to implement the Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs came into force on 19 December 2014. Agreement details (in Ukrainian) http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/985_032
3) To see certificates ISO 9001:2015; ISO 14001:2015 and OHSAS 18001:2007, please go to the official website of Energoatom at http://www.atom.gov.ua/en/about/certificates/
4) Donuzlavska VES is located in the temporarily occupied area of the Crimea.
5) For more about anti-corruption clauses at Energoatom, please go to http://www.energoatom.kiev.ua/en/compliance/corporate_rules/
6) For more about Energoatom's Anti-Corruption Programme, please go to http://www.energoatom.kiev.ua/en/compliance/anticorruption/
7) European Nuclear Installations Safety Standards Initiative under the umbrella of FORATOM
8) Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs was approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, Resolution No. 1270 dd. 7 December 2011. In 2012, the programme was updated to include additional post-Fukushima safety measures based on results of stress tests. The programme will continue until 2020, costing UAH 20.1 billion. For more information about the programme, please go to http://zakon5.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/1270-2011-п (in Ukrainian).
9) The central facility to store SF of VVER-type reactors operating at domestic nuclear power plants is being built in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (Kyiv Oblast) in accordance with the Law of Ukraine On the Central Spent Fuel Storage Facility, No. 4384 dated 9 February 2012.
10) The project was initiated by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, Order No. 671-p "Starting the implementation of Ukraine-EU Energy Bridge pilot project" dd. 15 June 2015.
11) For more about International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA, please go to https://www.iaea.org/
12) For more about European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, EBRD, please go to http://www.ebrd.com/ukraine.html
13) For more about European Commission, please go to https://ec.europa.eu/
14) For more about European Atomic energy Community, Euratom, please go to https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/horizon2020/en/h2020-section/euratom
15) For more about European Utility Requirements, EUR, please go to http://www.europeanutilityrequirements.org/
16) The loan agreement with EBRD took effect on 19 December 2014, and the loan agreement with Euratom became effective on 28 May 2015, with a total loan amount being €600 million). For more about the agreements, please go to http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/985 032 (in Ukrainian).
17) Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine No. 49-р dd. 13 January 2016 “On approval of the project for reconstruction of the service water supply. Operation of power units 1-3 at Tashlyk Reservoir and spray pools at South-Ukraine NPP (Adjustments)”.
18) Underlying document for the project: Order No. 1036-r “Approving completion of Tashlyk Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Power Plant” adopted by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine on 21 November 2007.
19) For more about public discussions, please see the report on public discussions of EIA findings about raising the level of Olexandrivske reservoir to 20.7 m and in a Q&A Book.
20) For more about European network of transmission system operators for electricity, ENTSO-E, please go to https://www.entsoe.eu
21) ALARA principle means ensuring radiation protection of NPPs’ staff and the public and complying with the principles of justification, dose non-exceedance and optimisation.
22) Nuclear and radiation safety, radiation protection, H&S, industrial and technological safety, environmental and fire safety, prevention of serious and industrial accidents, preparedness for emergency response and emergencies, as well as physical protection of nuclear facilities, nuclear materials, radioactive waste, and other sources of ionizing radiation.
23) Physical protection is the activity in the area of nuclear energy use which is aimed at ensuring protection of nuclear facilities, nuclear materials, radioactive waste, and other sources of ionizing radiation and at strengthening the nuclear non-proliferation regime.
24) The increase in the accident severity rate in 2017 results from calculations that have to include 260 days of lost time in connection with the accidents of 2016 as the lost time period of these accidents ended in 2017.
25) For more information on the Company's Environmental Policy, please see the Environmental Responsibility section in Energoatom Non-Financial Report 2016 at http://nfr2016.energoatom.kiev.ua/en/ecology.php
26) For more information about the environmental footprint of measures to raise the level of Olexandrivske reservoir on the Southern Buh River to +20.7 m as part of the project “Completion of Tashlyk Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Power Plant”, please go to https://goo.gl/4SNMmU (in Ukrainian).
27) For more about the Report “Environmental Impact Assessment of the Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs 2012-2016”, please go to http://www.energoatom.kiev.ua/files/file/ekolog_chna_oc_nka_kzpb_2016_kv_ten2017.pdf (in Ukrainian).
28) Key conclusions of the EIA for Zaporizhzhya NPP and South-Ukraine NPP were disclosed in the Company’s Non-Financial Report 2016.
29) For more of the Report on cross-border consultations on the EIA of Zaporizhzhya NPP and South-Ukraine NPP, please go to http://energoatom.kiev.ua/files/file/zv_t_transkordonnih_ konsultac_y_rumun_ya_moldova_polscha_s_chen2018_(2).pdf (in Ukrainian).
30) For more about Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine No. 605-r dd. 18 August 2017 approving Ukraine Energy Strategy 2035 ‘Safety, Energy Efficiency, Competitiveness’, please go to http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/605-2017-%D1%80 (in Ukrainian).
31) For more about Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine No. 990-r dd. 19 August 2009 approving radioactive waste management in Ukraine, please go to http://zakon5.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/990-2009-%D1%80 (in Ukrainian).
32) For more about Ukraine Low-Carbon Development Strategy 2050, please go to https://goo.gl/MFvFNx (in Ukrainian).
33) For more about the Stakeholder Engagement Plan for the Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs, please go to http://energoatom.kiev.ua/files/file/ccsup_pmu_e_pr_acp_001_00_sep_06_02_2015_ua_with_title.pdf (in Ukrainian).
34) For more about the Q&A Book for the Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs and Environmental Impact Assessment for the Programme, please go to http://energoatom.kiev.ua/files/file/ccsup_pmu_e_pr_rep_003_01_qab_addendum_2017_ua.pdf (in Ukrainian)
35) For Energoatom’s social policy priorities, please see the Company’s Non-Financial Report 2016 at http://nfr2016.energoatom.kiev.ua/en/index.php
36) For Energoatom’s social benefits under the collective bargaining agreement, please see the Company’s Non-Financial Report 2016 at http://nfr2016.energoatom.kiev.ua/en/index.php